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In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. Stephen's Green Dublin 2 Ireland. On the occasion of the th anniversary of the founding of the Medical Society of London in , its Council recommended a Mansell Bequest Symposium on the British contribution to Neurology. In the year , it is apposite to give an account of twentieth century neurology. Neurology has been used in its widest sense to include such neuro-psychological topics as aphasiology Chapter 3 , hemispheric lateralisation Chapter 4 and dyslexia Chapter 5 , as well as neurosurgery Chapters and neuropathology Chapter Neurogenetics is a rapidly expanding field so that it is appropriate to include an up-to-date account of the development of knowledge in the mitochondrial myopathies Chapter We felt it appropriate to include three original papers Chapters given in by distinguished contributors, now deceased, on the occasion of the centennial symposium of Gordon Holmes birth, the leading clinical neurologist of the twentieth century.
Twentieth Century Neurology: The British Contribution - Frank Clifford Rose - Google книги
The close links between the British and the American neurology are shown by the two final presentations Chapters 20 and Clearly, this volume is not the definitive work on twentieth century British neurology but, with the advent of the new millennium, these original contributions reflect the background to the rapid advances that have taken place in the past years. In a life extending over ninety-five years, Sherrington Fig. Even before he received his medical degree from Cambridge, he was drawn into the fierce neurological debate concerning Professor Goltz's demonstration, to the International Medical Congress in London in , of the performance of a dog in which he had removed part of its brain.
In true British fashion a committee was set up, under J. Langley the Cambridge physiologist. His student, Sherrington, reported on the precise anatomical structures involved, thus launching his career in the realm of scientific publications, a career in which he produced papers. At the same boisterous meeting David Ferrier demonstrated the con-tralateral effect, on a monkey, of removing part of its brain. Ferrier was Sherrington's hero, to whom 20 years later he dedicated his Integrative Action of the Nervous System. Thus began in Sherrington's interest in cerebral localisation of function.
A growing interest in pathology next took Sherrington to study with Rudolf Virchow in Berlin. There he had the additional education of seeing Virchow's enemy Bismarck berating the Reichstag Virchow believed that the ruling family of Prussia consisted of the father who had softening of the brain, the grandfather had hardening of the brain, and the grandson who had no brain at all! On returning to London, Sherrington was made a lecturer in physiology at St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School.
Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century
The nerve cells of the mammalian spinal cord occupied much of his research time, along with studies on cerebral circulation, still highly regarded. In four years at St.
Thomas', he published a dozen papers. Matthew Paskins LSE. Attempts to discover whether or not one material can be used in place of another run through the history of science from antiquity to the present.
This paper gives an overview of twentieth century histories of substitute materials as a technoscientific-political project. Successful substitution typically involves a coordination between material availability, narratives of use, experimental practices to discover similarities and differences between material affordances, and regimes of testing and regulation.
Substitute materials are also invested with potent narratives which connects them with political aims. During the twentieth century historians have associated substitute materials primarily with a range of political projects, notably the chemurgical movement in the USA during the s, British colonial development schemes in the post-world war two period, and the ersatz economies of the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. It is thus framed as arising in exceptional condition, arising with conditions of war and emergency. Substitution can also be understood as a more gradual and quotidian series of material transitions and coexistences.
Examining these more chronic attempts to substitute gives a way to relate histories of chemistry to geographies of production, and their associated ideologies. Coreen McGuire University of Bristol. The telephone in inter-war Britain was an important tool for both the identification and categorisation of individual hearing loss.
Between and , the British Post Office had control over a nationalised telephone system. Linkage between telephony and hearing has long been noted by historians of sound and science and Post Office engineers in the inter-war period had considerable expertise in both telecommunications and hearing assistive devices. This talk will first demonstrate how the interwar Post Office categorised different kinds of hearing loss through standardising the capacity of its users to engage effectively with the telephone, and secondly investigate how successful it was in doing so.
This talk will highlight that institutional decisions about the types of measurements we prioritise and the types of bodies we choose to measure as standard have been heavily weighted with historical biases and discrimination. Examining the creation of 'normal hearing' in inter-war Britain thus allows for wider consideration of the technological construction of disability.