The last of his dreams is the most horrifying of all: Svidrigailov dreams that he helps and comforts a miserable five-year-old girl whom he finds sobbing in a corner, hiding from her abusive mother. After he tucks her into bed, she attempts to seduce him, with a "fiery and shameless look" on her "completely unchildlike face" "Ah, cursed girl! The little girl of Svidrigailov's dream is the only child in Crime and Punishment who could be called anything other than deeply innocent.
It is a mark, indeed, of Svidrigailov's own vileness that he is able to imagine this devilish, sexualized child.
Children in Crime and Punishment are often victims of violence and poverty, but they retain purity and natural empathy--thus Raskolnikov's childhood self in his dream protests against the torture of the horse while the grownups around hito are at best indifferent to its sufferings. The Brothers Karamazov likewise insists on the innocence of children, an idea reiterated throughout the novel. Characters of otherwise opposing viewpoints reinforce the idea that children ate pure: Zosima says that children are "sinless, like angels" PSS ; BK while Iran protests against the suffering of children in part because they "have not eaten [the apple] yet, and are not yet guilty of anything" PSS ; BK The death of the consumptive Ilyusha can be read as an example of just such a suffering innocent.
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Rimvydas Silbajoris, for example, writes that Ilyusha at the end of the novel is the "symbolic equivalent of the dead Christ" 37 , a sinless being who, in dying, helps to redeem those left behind. But Ilyusha's Christ-like nature is far murkier than it might at first seem. Dostoevsky's thoughts about childhood innocence became more complex between , when Crime and Punishment was published, and the late s, when he was writing The Brothers Karamazov.
Even while The Brothers Karamazov insists on the innocence of children, it also undercuts this idea, showing how children can be sinful even while they suffer. Ilyusha is a sinner at the same time that he is Christ-like; suffering leads to cruelty even while it brings the sufferer closer to God. This article will argue that the tension between childhood innocence and childhood guilt is at the very heart of the novel.
Children in The Brothers Karamazov are frequent victims of poverty, abuse, and neglect. In this they resemble another category of natural victims, the peasants, who had recently been freed from serfdom. Abused children reflect the historical and personal suffering so many serfs underwent, and the long-term results of that suffering.
Among the saddest of these results is that the victims of cruelty go on to perpetuate it, thus creating more victims and more violence. The novel proposes a solution to the vicious cycle of abuse: people need to be willing not to strive for the top of the hierarchy, but rather to put themselves in the position of historical victims.
If everyone becomes like a child or like a serf, then power structures become meaningless and the whole violent system dissolves. The Brothers Karamazov offers an understanding of kenosis that takes literally Paul's call to "let the same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus, who Thus kenosis can be a spiritual act with immediate social and political implications.
The transmission of active love is not doctrinal in the sense of memorizing a set of teachings or logical procedures; rather, it is experiential in nature that passes mysteriously from one person to another. As best, language can only point to or indicate human experience; it cannot fully capture it and transmit it like a data set to another person — a view that Dostoevsky himself held about the inherent inability of language to reveal the deepest truths of human existence Whereas Ivan had presented Christianity as either happiness for all or individual freedom, Zossima furnishes an account of Christianity that emphasizes both happiness and individual freedom within a community.
The possession of reason is a great advantage for humans to navigate themselves in the world, but it cannot stand outside of realm of reality, since humans are bounded spatially and temporality. The tragedy of Ivan is that he wishes to transform Euclidean reason from a finite viewpoint to a vantage point outside of space and time — an impossible feat. But when someone exists within a community, with all their demands, obligations, and requests, the person is aware of the limited cognition of his own situation and therefore is more receptive to the mystery of reality.
The experiential sense of interconnectedness with others propels us to not only accept that we are complicit in the suffering that exists in the world but that we are obligated to improve things through active love. Dostoevsky continued his indirect response to The Tale in the dramatic actions of the character Alyosha and his engagement with the children. Because Christ has sacrifice himself for all of humanity, everyone becomes indebted to Him and thereby are responsible to everyone else and to everything.
The foundation for the regime is not based on the innocent blood of victim, as Ivan had proposed; rather, the regime is rooted in the self-sacrifice of Christ that allows humans to accept the happiness and suffering of everyone in the Christian community. The doctrine of the responsibility for all is prompted by the action of active love — which is why Zossima instructs Alyosha to leave the monastery in order to marry Liza Khokhlakova and to prevent parricide in his family.
Like Ivan, Alyosha looked for a higher justice that would reconcile the laws of nature with the goodness of God. When this higher justice failed to appear, Alyosha became distraught to the extent that he allowed the career seminarian Rakitin to arrange a visit to Grushenka, who wishes to seduce him.
She had pity on me just now. This prompts Grushenka to express remorse over her intention to seduce Alyosha, as she had done with his father and brother, Dmitry, and how this experience has transformed her life, triggering her childhood memory of a folktale she heard from a peasant she still employs. The tale is about a wicked old woman who was in the fiery lake of Hell.go site
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Her guardian angel wondered what good deed she had done in order to tell God; and he remembered that she had once given an onion to a beggar. Both egoism and individualism precludes a sense of community, thereby making it impossible to be responsible for anyone besides oneself. In the context of self-centered interest, people are seen as competitors over limited resources instead of participants in a common enterprise; and stability only can be restored through a totalitarian regime.
By contrast, in taking responsibility for everyone and everything, the cause-and-effect of Euclidean reason becomes inconsequential, for someone like Zossima who accepts the mystery of existence with the belief that eternal life, as assigned by God, will be the true, higher justice.
This sweetness and joy in his heart is the experiential understanding of the responsibility for all as prompted by his encounter of active love with Grushenka. And many here have given only an onion each — only one little onion. The silence of the earth seemed to merge into the silence of the heavens, the mystery of the earth came in contact with the mystery of the stars. Alyosha stood, gazed, and suddenly he threw himself down upon the earth. He could not have explained to himself why he longed so irresistibly to kiss it, to kiss it all, but he kissed it weeping, sobbing and drenching it with his tears, and vowed frenziedly to love it, to love it forever and ever.
A set of syllogism to prove something like the responsibility for all would not convince the reader that The Tale was the inferior argument because such a presentation at the outset epistemologically favors reason over experience. The adoption of a dramatic interplay between characters is a better strategy by showing how characters experience for themselves the doctrine of responsibility of all through active love. Of particular importance is the relationship between Alyosha and Kolya who is the intellectually-advanced and the future leader of the group of boys.
His composure of emotional restrain and rationalism gives ways to feelings of empathy and compassion.
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The need of children to be taken seriously by adults is a powerful one that can propel intellectually-gifted children like Kolya into revolutionary ideologies when their ideas are dogmatically dismissed from their religious elders. A better strategy is to engage with children as their equals in the hope that they will expose their insecurities. He admits that it was his vanity and pride that precluded him from visiting Ilyusha, to which Alyosha asks him to overcome his faults and fear of failures by visiting his friend. The scene concludes with Kolya, Ilyusha, and the captain embracing one another as a community united by suffering, pathos, and the Christian hope of eternity.
The death of Ilyusha is remembered as a community of friendship based on the Christian hope of the bodily resurrection instead of the tragic death of an innocent child — another indirect response to the Tale. This transformation of memory connects the new community of believers and cements their bonds of friendship. This experience has been demonstrated dramatically from Markel to Zossima to Alyosha to Kolya and, finally, to the reader himself.
Again, this appeal is indirect because of the inherent limitations within language, but Dostoevsky more than meets the challenge of the Inquisitor. Dostoevsky can lead the reader to the experience of active love in illustrating how it operates, although ultimately it is up to the reader to see whether such an experience exists within him. The assumption is a reality does exist outside the realm of our senses and that God is just and omnipotent , which leads us to conclude that justice exist in both this world and the next.
Since the arguments are structurally and logically identical, reason cannot decide which argument is superior. Whereas the Inquisitor offers miracle, mystery, and authority irrespective of the divinity of Jesus, Zossima offers all three rooted in the experience of divinity as emphasized in Orthodox Christianity and prompted by active love. Dostoevsky imparted to us a vision of a Christian community based on love, memory, and responsibility that requires the reader to make the necessary connections in the novel, thereby forcing him to reflect upon his own experiences and compare them with the characters in the novel.
The Dialogic Imagination , ed. Michael Holquist, tr.
Caryl Emerson Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Leatherbarrow Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, A sample of different and conflicting interpretations of The Tale are found in Wasiolek, Edward. Polnoe Sobranie Sochinenii , ed. Fridlender et al.
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Leningrad, Subsequent citations will be volume and page number.