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Ebooks and eBook visitors provide substantial benefits above traditional reading. Figure 1: Row of books as a single unit During our daily life, there are lots of examples using prestressing. Like wooden barrel, people used metal bands or ropes around wooden staves. Wooden barrel wooden stave half of metal band Figure 2: Principle of prestressing applied to barrel construction Lin, T Y, , The wooden barrel was consist of some wooden staves and fixed by two metal bands.

The compressive prestress was caused between adjacent staves.


Before bands and staves under any loads, both of them were prestressed. It could balance the internal liquid pressure and increase the barrel's using life. Right now, prestressing is widely used, especially the prestressed concrete. The right figure below shows the principle of prestressing in concrete beam: Understanding Structural Concepts a Loading on the beam. Figure 3: Prestressed Concrete Beam In conclusion, prestress can be used to improve anti-cracking property, durability, rigidity and bearing capacity of members.

Seeing and Touching Structural Concepts | Taylor & Francis Group

Threlfall A. British Cement Association. ISBN: 0 7. Yi Zhuo We can assume that there are three identical cars moving with the same speed on the three types of the bridges respectively. The first one is moving on a plain bridge, the second one is moving on a concave bridge and the third one is moving on a convex bridge.

When all the three cars are passing the midpoints of their respective bridges, then A. The supportive force from the plain bridge to the car is medium among the three B. The supportive force from the concave bridge to the car is maximum among the three C. The supportive force from the convex bridge to the car is minimum among the three. The reason why the three conclusions inferred will be explained as follow. According to the Fig. As we know that Newtons first law of motion said that Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.

In other words, if a car is under without external forces, it will move uniformly in a direction tangential to the bridge see Fig. However, there should be forces on the car which make it change the direction of motion. References: Frederic P. Tianjian J. The material is elastic and elastic limit is not exceeded during loading 2.

Amrit Pal Singh Concept: Stable Equilibrium by lowering the Centre of Gravity Definitions:- Equilibrium- It is defined as the state of rest of a body, during which the net effect of forces on the body is zero i. Three states of equilibrium: a. Stable Equilibrium- A body is in stable equilibrium when the mass is concentrated at the bottom thus lowering the position of center of gravity. So when the body is tilted, the centre of gravity gets raised but the body moves back to its stable equilibrium position by making the centre of gravity as low as possible.

Seeing Touching Structural Concepts by Tianjian

Example Roly ploy toy b. Unstable Equilibrium A body is in unstable equilibrium when the mass is concentrated at the top, when a small force is applied on such a body it makes the body unstable and the body ultimately falls to make the centre of gravity as low as possible. Example a person standing on one foot. Neutral equilibrium- A body is in neutral equilibrium when the body is placed in such a position so that when a force acts on the body, centre of gravity is neither raised nor lowered.

Example A dumbbell lying on ground along its longer dimension Centre of gravity A rigid body is made up of different members each having a specific weight. Center of gravity of a body is a point where we assume the weight of all the members of the body to be concentrated. Understanding Structural Concepts Answer to Why???? At equilibrium centre of gravity is exactly above the point of contact with the ground as shown by the red line. When the toy is tilted the center of gravity rises from the green line to the orange line, and the center of gravity is no longer over the point of contact with the ground as clarified by the yellow line.

This produces a righting moment which returns the toy to the equilibrium position. Such a Roly poly toys is not homogenous as its density varies across the body. An object like this has only one stable and unstable point so no matter how you move the toy it will return to its original position. Based on this example we can explain why it is so important for a Structure to have a broad base with its centre of gravity as low as possible and within the base of its support.

If the centre of gravity of the structure lies outside the base of the support it may be unstable and it may fail but if centre of gravity is within the base of support and if a force is applied on the structure the structure will move around a fixed point at the base and retain its original position after some time therefore the position of the centre of gravity is crucial in a structure.

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Conclusion - If a system has its centre of gravity concentrated nearer the base of the support, it is in stable equilibrium, small disturbances to the system may lead to temporary changes in the position of the system but ultimately the system returns to its original position.

So when the roly- poly toy is tilted at an angle it wobbles for some time and then attains its original position. Cable supported structures are defined as cable supported plane structureseparate cable supported spatial structure and inseparable supported spatial structure. The lasso offer tension force so that the structure internal force get balance and the structure remain stable. The internal force path shows in the picture below. Chord-tension beams example: Use common ruler as beams, both ends can be thought of as hinge support. Only use common ruler to support and put a load of 2. It is clearly that the deflection is obvious. Use cloth, ruler and plastic box constitute a chord-tension beam.

As shown below: Understanding Structural Concepts Put a load of 4kg at the middle of beam. Deflection of the structure is very small. Compared with the formal simply supported beams, stiffness improves a lot. Load flow path of chord-tension beams: The bottom lasso sustain tension force, largely reduced the bending moment of the curved upper beams.

Understanding Structural Concepts Assume the area of the uprights component is A1, the area of lower component is A2, the height of chord-tension beam is h. The second moment of area of the uprights component is I1. The second moment of area of lower component is I2 Then we can get the second moment of area of the whole structure: Conclusion: 1.

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A string of the structure of the upper structure has certain stiffness, this makes the structure of the construction and the joint structure than the flexible structure will greatly simplified. The forces path on the system structure is reasonable. High strength pressed lasso the introduction of the upper structure and lower cable-strut formed part of the whole, and work together; A type of the cable tension through the inner structure make the generation and load the opposite displacement, partly offset by the load.

In theory have to maximize the use of structure material characteristics, use of the least build large span steel structure of the building, etc.