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Seller Inventory P More information about this seller Contact this seller. Tim Maudlin. Publisher: Blackwell Pub , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title The experimental verification of violations of Bell's Inequality has demonstrated that our world is fundamentally unlike the world as the classical world-view would have it: particles created together somehow remain "in communication" with one another irrespective of the distance between them, even when they are so far separated that light could not connect them.
From the Back Cover : Modern physics was born from two great revolutions: relativity and quantum theory.
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Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Their paper concludes: . While we have thus shown that the wave function does not provide a complete description of the physical reality, we left open the question of whether or not such a description exists. We believe, however, that such a theory is possible. Although various authors most notably Niels Bohr criticised the ambiguous terminology of the EPR paper,   the thought experiment nevertheless generated a great deal of interest.
Their notion of a "complete description" was later formalised by the suggestion of hidden variables that determine the statistics of measurement results, but to which an observer does not have access. In John Bell answered Einstein's question by showing that such local hidden variables can never reproduce the full range of statistical outcomes predicted by quantum theory.
Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity
If the Bell inequalities are violated experimentally as predicted by quantum mechanics, then reality cannot be described by local hidden variables and the mystery of quantum nonlocal causation remains. According to Bell: . This [grossly nonlocal structure] is characteristic EPR's criteria of local separability then stipulates that each local strategy defines the distributions of independent outcomes if Alice measures in direction A and Bob measures in direction B : .
In the CHSH scheme, the measurement result for the polarization of a photon can take one of two values informally, whether the photon is polarized in that direction, or in the orthogonal direction. The correlator E A , B can therefore be seen as the expectation that Alice's and Bob's outcomes are correlated. If the joint probability distribution can be described with local strategies as above, it can be shown that the correlation function always obeys the following CHSH inequality: . This demonstrates an explicit way in which a theory with ontological states that are local, with local measurements and only local actions cannot match the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory, disproving Einstein's hypothesis.
Experimentalists such as Alain Aspect have verified the quantum violation of the CHSH inequality,  as well as other formulations of Bell's inequality, to invalidate the local hidden variables hypothesis and confirm that reality is indeed nonlocal in the EPR sense. The demonstration of nonlocality due to Bell is probabilistic in the sense that it shows that the precise probabilities predicted by quantum mechanics for some entangled scenarios cannot be met by a local theory. For short, here and henceforth "local theory" means "local hidden variables theory".
However, quantum mechanics permits an even stronger violation of local theories: a possibilistic one, in which we find that local theories cannot agree with quantum mechanics on which events are possible or impossible in an entangled scenario.
The first proof of this kind was due to Greenberger , Horne and Zeilinger in In , Lucien Hardy demonstrated a logical proof of quantum nonlocality that, like the GHZ proof is a possibilistic proof. In the media and popular science, quantum nonlocality is often portrayed as being equivalent to entanglement. While it is true that a pure bipartite quantum state must be entangled in order for it to produce nonlocal correlations, there exist entangled mixed states which do not produce such correlations,  and there exist non-entangled namely, separable states that do produce some type of non-local behavior.
On the other hand, reasonably simple examples of Bell inequalities have been found for which the quantum state giving the largest violation is never a maximally entangled state , showing that entanglement is, in some sense, not even proportional to nonlocality. In short, entanglement of a two-party state is neither necessary nor sufficient for that state to be nonlocal.
It is important to recognise that entanglement is more commonly viewed as an algebraic concept, noted for being a precedent to nonlocality as well as quantum teleportation and superdense coding , whereas nonlocality is interpreted according to experimental statistics and is much more involved with the foundations and interpretations of quantum mechanics. The attempt to understand what distinguishes quantum theory from such general theories motivated an abstraction from physical measurements of nonlocality, to the study of nonlocal boxes. Nonlocal boxes generalize the concept of experimentalists making joint measurements from separate locations.
As in the discussion above, the choice of measurement is encoded by the input to the box.
Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity
The box is characterized by the probability of outputting pair a, b , given the inputs A, B. A box is local , or admits a local hidden variable model , if its output probabilities can be characterized in the following way: . If a box violates this condition, it is explicitly called nonlocal. However, the study of nonlocal boxes often encompasses both local and nonlocal boxes.
The set of nonlocal boxes most commonly studied are the so-called non-signalling boxes ,  for which neither Alice nor Bob can signal their choice of input to the other. Physically, this is a reasonable restriction: setting the input is physically analogous to making a measurement, which should effectively provide a result immediately. Since there may be a large spatial separation between the parties, signalling to Bob would potentially require considerable time to elapse between measurement and result, which is a physically unrealistic scenario. The non-signalling requirement imposes further conditions on the joint probability, in that the probability of a particular output a or b should depend only on its associated input.
This allows for the notion of a reduced or marginal probability on both Alice and Bob's measurements, and is formalised by the conditions:. The constraints above are all linear, and so define a polytope representing the set of all non-signalling boxes with a given number of inputs and outputs. Local boxes are clearly non-signalling, however nonlocal boxes may or may not be non-signalling. Since this polytope contains all possible non-signalling boxes of a given number of inputs and outputs, it has as subsets both local boxes and those boxes which can achieve Tsirelson's bound in accord with quantum mechanical correlations.
Indeed, the set of local boxes form a convex sub-polytope of the non-signalling polytope. Popescu and Rohrlich's maximum algebraic violation of the CHSH inequality can be reached by a non-signalling box, referred to as a standard PR box after these authors, with joint probability given by:. Various attempts have been made to argue why Nature does not or should not allow for stronger nonlocality than quantum theory is already known to permit.
For example, it was found in the late 's that quantum mechanics cannot be more nonlocal without violating the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Nevertheless, the PR-box is ruled out by a plausible postulate of information theory. Non-signaling adversaries have recently been considered in quantum cryptography. This fact was noted already in  and was shown to be a characteristic of any physical theory where nonlocal correlations are consistent with relativistic causality .
The Hilbert-space structure of quantum mechanics affords a statistical covariance matrix for these observables, a generalization of the covariance matrix from probability theory. This correlation matrix is similarly positive semi-definite, namely, it satisfies. The above matrix inequality was shown in  to imply known as well as new characterizations of the set of bipartite quantum correlations.
Physical description. Includes bibliographical references pages and index. Print version record. Bell's theorem: the price of locality -- Appendix A: The GHZ scheme -- Relativity and space-time structure -- Finger exercise: superliminal matter transport -- Controlling the connection: signals -- Appendix B: Bohmian mechanics -- Causation -- Secret messages -- Points of view -- Life in elastic space-time -- Morals -- An overview of quantum mechanics.
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Bell, J. Physics Philosophy. Quantum theory. Relativity Physics Physics Philosophy. Relativity Physics Bell's theorem. Relativity Physics.