If you are unsure of any of this information, you should ask the IT staff. In many cases, even if you are an administrator, there is a specific person you must ask for the IP address setup that should be used. If no one in your organization has this role yet, this role should be assigned to someone or jointly managed to ensure that IP addresses are assigned following a specific plan. The plan should detail the following information:. The address ranges that are reserved for network equipment and hardware and which individual IP addresses in this range are currently in use.
The address ranges that are for static IP addresses and which individual IP addresses in this range are currently in use.
Network adapters are hardware devices that are used to communicate on networks. You can install and configure network adapters by following these steps:. For example, you might need to use the software provided by the manufacturer to modify the Interrupt setting or the Port setting of the adapter. If installing an internal network interface card, shut down the computer, unplug it, and install the adapter card in the appropriate slot on the computer.
Windows Server should detect the new adapter during startup. If you have a separate driver disc for the adapter, insert it now.
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Otherwise, you might be prompted to insert a driver disc. Click Start and then click Network. In Network Connections, right-click the connection you want to work with and then select Properties. Instead, every computer can share its resources with any other.
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With tens of millions of computers connected by Ethernet cards and cables, Ethernet is the most widely used data-link layer protocol in the world. You can buy Ethernet adapters from dozens of competing manufacturers, and most systems sold in the past decade incorporate one or more built-in Ethernet ports.
Older adapters supported one, two, or all three of the cable types defined in the standard: Thinnet, Thicknet, and unshielded twisted pair UTP. Current adapters support only UTP. Most desktop and even laptop systems now incorporate gigabit Ethernet.
About this guide
In the future we will likely see 10 gigabit Ethernet also known as 10G Ethernet appearing in desktop PCs. Note: Throughout the remainder of this chapter, be aware that discussion of older Ethernet solutions such as those using Thicknet or Thinnet as well as alternative networks such as Token-Ring are only included for reference. You will usually encounter those technologies only when working on older, existing networks. New network installations today normally use Gigabit, Fast, or Wireless Ethernet.
Fast Ethernet requires adapters, hubs, switches, and UTP or fiber-optic cables designed to support its rated speed. Full-duplex operation requires that all hardware in the connection, including adapters and switches, be capable of running in full-duplex and be configured to run in full-duplex or automatically detect full-duplex signals. These wire pairs are also found in Cat 5e , Cat 6 , and Cat 6a cable. Gigabit Ethernet also requires special adapters, hubs, switches, and cables.
Gigabit Ethernet hardware was initially very expensive, thus limiting the use of gigabit Ethernet to high-end network interconnections. More recently, the prices of cables, adapters and especially switches has fallen dramatically, making gigabit the recommended choice for all new cable, adapter, and switch installations. Neither Fast Ethernet nor gigabit Ethernet support the use of thin or thick coaxial cable originally used with traditional Ethernet, although you can interconnect coaxial cable—based and UTP-based Ethernet networks by using media converters or specially designed hubs and switches.
Lower grade Cat 6 cable can be used if the distance is limited to 55 meters feet. Just as with gigabit Ethernet, all four pairs in the cable are used. Once the prices of adapters and switches falls to be close to those for gigabit Ethernet, we will see 10 gigabit Ethernet start to become popular for PC-based networks.
To prepare for a future upgrade to 10 gigabit Ethernet, consider installing only Category 6a or better cabling in any new installations. The most common forms of wireless networking are built around various versions of the IEEE Wi-Fi certification comes from the Wi-Fi Alliance, a nonprofit international trade organization that tests To carry the Wi-Fi logo, an This certification arose from the fact that certain ambiguities in the By purchasing only devices bearing the Wi-Fi logo, you ensure that they will work together and not fall into loopholes in the standards.
Note: The Bluetooth standard for short-range wireless networking, covered later in this chapter, is designed to complement, rather than rival, IEEE The widespread popularity of IEEE This was especially common in early Although these proprietary solutions can work, beware that most, if not all, of these vendor-specific solutions are not interoperable with devices from other vendors.
When different vendor-specific devices are mixed on a single network, they use the slower common standard to communicate with each other. When the first A group of companies formed an alliance designed to ensure that their products would work together, thus eliminating any ambiguities or loopholes in the standards. However, because the Wi-Fi Alliance now certifies other types of Currently, the Alliance has certified products that meet the final versions of the The Wi-Fi Alliance currently uses a color-coded certification label to indicate the standard s supported by a particular device.
The image below shows the most common versions of the label, along with the official IEEE standard s that the label corresponds to: IEEE Wireless networks running Although the increasing use of these products is a potential source of interference, the short range of wireless networks indoor ranges up to approximately feet and outdoor ranges up to about feet, varying by product minimizes the practical risks. Many devices use a spread-spectrum method of connecting with other products to minimize potential interference.
Although Most As distances change and signal strength increases or decreases, The overhead required to track and change signaling methods, along with the additional overhead required when security features are enabled, helps explain why wireless hardware throughput is consistently lower than the rated speed.
The figure below is a simplified diagram showing how speed is reduced with distance. Figures given are for best-case situations; building design and antenna positioning can also reduce speed and signal strength, even at relatively short distances. Although real-world For example, in a typical office floor layout, the real-world throughput always slower than the rated speed due to security and signaling overhead of a typical At a distance of about 50 feet, Given the difference in throughput especially at long distances , and if we take the existence of In a single word: frequency.
By using the 5 GHz frequency instead of the 2. The current solution for maximum flexibility is to use dual-band hardware. Dual-band hardware can work with either The final In some cases, problems with early-release Note: Although For example, you can configure a 2. The latter offers the highest performance for Wireless-N devices. Similarly you can configure Wireless-G access points to allow Restricting or disabling the mixed mode operation offers higher performance at the expense of restricting the types of devices that can connect.
The latest wireless network standard, MIMO uses multiple radios and antennas to transmit multiple data streams also known as spatial streams between stations. Unlike earlier Thus, depending on the specific implementation of Wireless-N devices can contain radios in a number of different configurations supported by the standard. The radios are defined or categorized by the number of transmit antennas, receive antennas, and data streams also called spatial streams they can support.
A common notation has been devised to describe these configurations, which is written as a x b:c, where a is the maximum number of transmit antennas, b is the maximum number of receive antennas, and c is the maximum number of simultaneous data streams that can be used. Those using more antennas than data streams allow for increased signal diversity and range. That depends mainly on how many data streams are supported, as well as whether a couple of other optional features are enabled or not.
The base configuration uses 20 MHz wide channels with an ns guard interval between transmitted signals. By using channel bonding to increase the channel width to 40 MHz, more than double the bandwidth can be achieved in theory. In addition, the wider channel takes up more of the band, causing more interference with other wireless networks in range.
Another optional feature is using a shorter guard interval GI , which is the amount of time in nanoseconds the system waits between transmitting OFDM orthagonal frequency division multiplexing symbols in a data stream. Just as with channel bonding 40 MHz channel width , this can cause problems if there is excessive interference or low signal strength, resulting in decreased overall throughput due to signal errors and retries.
Core network components
Using the shorter ns guard interval would increase this to up to As with other members of the The Wi-Fi Alliance first began certifying products that support The In some cases, driver or firmware updates might be necessary to insure ensure full compliance. As with previous Wi-Fi certifications, the Wi-Fi Bluetooth is a low-speed, low-power standard originally designed to interconnect laptop computers, PDAs, cell phones, and pagers for data synchronization and user authentication in public areas such as airports, hotels, rental car pickups, and sporting events.
Bluetooth is also used for a variety of wireless devices on PCs, including printer adapters, keyboards, mice, headphones, DV camcorders, data projectors, and many others. A list of Bluetooth products and announcements is available at the official Bluetooth wireless information website.
Bluetooth devices also use the same 2.
However, in an attempt to avoid interference with Wi-Fi, Bluetooth uses a signaling method called frequency hopping spread spectrum FHSS , which switches the exact frequency used during a Bluetooth session times per second over the 79 channels Bluetooth uses. Unlike Wi-Fi, which is designed to allow a device to be part of a network at all times, Bluetooth is designed for ad hoc temporary networks known as piconets in which two devices connect only long enough to transfer data and then break the connection.
The current version of Bluetooth is 4. Version 3. Despite the frequency-hopping nature of Bluetooth, studies have shown that Bluetooth Interference reduces throughput and in some circumstances can cause data loss.
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Bluetooth version 1.