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Citations Publications citing this paper. Distance education experience with electric power courses at the university of Iceland Egill Benedikt Hreinsson. Carrier Types volume Physical Description xii, pages : illustrations ; 23 cm. Subjects Distance education -- Costs. Computer-assisted instruction -- Costs. Summary "This book provides a comprehensive overview of the organizational models of distance and online learning from an international perspective and from the point of view of economic planning, costing and management decision-making.

The book points to directions for further research and development in this area, and will promote further understanding and critical reflection on the part of administrators, practitioners and researchers of distance education and training. The experiences and perspectives in distance education in the United States are balanced with those in other areas of the world.

Smith and William J.


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Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. Electronic reproduction. Available via World Wide Web. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? Australian Catholic University Library.

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Open to the public ; Reid Library. Open to the public ERC Bathurst Campus Library. Wagga Wagga Campus Library. Griffith University Library. Walter Perry was appointed the OU's first vice-chancellor in January , and its foundation secretary was Anastasios Christodoulou. The election of the new Conservative government under the leadership of Edward Heath , in ; led to budget cuts under Chancellor of the Exchequer Iain Macleod who had earlier called the idea of an Open University "blithering nonsense".

At the time, the total student population of conventional universities in the United Kingdom was around , Athabasca University , Canada's Open University, was created in and followed a similar, though independently developed, pattern. Most open universities use distance education technologies as delivery methods, though some require attendance at local study centres or at regional "summer schools". Some open universities have grown to become mega-universities , [31] a term coined to denote institutions with more than , students.

Internet technology has enabled many forms of distance learning through open educational resources and facilities such as e-learning and MOOC s. Although the expansion of the Internet blurs the boundaries, distance education technologies are divided into two modes of delivery: synchronous learning and asynchronous learning. In synchronous learning, all participants are "present" at the same time. In this regard, it resembles traditional classroom teaching methods despite the participants being located remotely.

Economics of Distance and Online Learning: Theory, Practice and Research

It requires a timetable to be organized. Web conferencing , videoconferencing , educational television , instructional television are examples of synchronous technology, as are direct-broadcast satellite DBS , internet radio , live streaming , telephone , and web-based VoIP. These tools also support asynchronous participation by students being able to listen to recordings of synchronous sessions.

Immersive environments notably SecondLife have also been used to enhance participant presence in distance education courses. Another form of synchronous learning that has been entering the classroom over the last couple of years is the use of robot proxies [34] including those that allow sick students to attend classes. Some universities have been starting to use robot proxies to enable more engaging synchronous hybrid classes where both remote and in person students can be present and interact using telerobotics devices such as the Kubi Telepresence robot stand that looks around and the Double Robot that roams around.

With these telepresence robots, the remote students have a seat at the table or desk instead of being on a screen on the wall. In asynchronous learning, participants access course materials flexibly on their own schedules.


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  7. Students are not required to be together at the same time. Mail correspondence, which is the oldest form of distance education, is an asynchronous delivery technology, as are message board forums, e-mail , video and audio recordings , print materials, voicemail , and fax. The two methods can be combined.

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    Many courses offered by both open universities and an increasing number of campus based institutions use periodic sessions of residential or day teaching to supplement the sessions delivered at a distance. Many open universities uses a blend of technologies and a blend of learning modalities face-to-face, distance, and hybrid all under the rubric of "distance learning". Distance learning can also use interactive radio instruction IRI , interactive audio instruction IAI , online virtual worlds , digital games, webinars, and webcasts, all of which are referred to as e-Learning.

    The rapid spread of film in the s and radio in the s led to proposals to use it for distance education. Experts in given fields broadcast lessons for pupils within the many schoolrooms of the public school system, asking questions, suggesting readings, making assignments, and conducting tests. This mechanizes education and leaves the local teacher only the tasks of preparing for the broadcast and keeping order in the classroom.

    The University was owned by the city, and local residents would pay the low tuition rates, receive their study materials in the mail, and listen by radio to live classroom discussions that were held on campus.

    Learning Theory and Online Course Design

    Posin also was a pioneer in the field of distance education when he hosted a televised course through DePaul University. Charles Wedemeyer of the University of Wisconsin—Madison also promoted new methods.

    Economics of Distance and Online Learning : Theory, Practice and Research PDF Download

    From to , the Carnegie Foundation funded Wedemeyer's Articulated Instructional Media Project AIM which brought in a variety of communications technologies aimed at providing learning to an off-campus population. The radio courses faded away in the s. From to the Coordinating Commission for Higher Education in California funded Project Outreach to study the potential of telecourses. The study included the University of California , California State University and the community colleges.

    This study led to coordinated instructional systems legislation allowing the use of public funds for non-classroom instruction and paved the way for the emergence of telecourses as the precursor to the online courses and programs of today. The widespread use of computers and the internet have made distance learning easier and faster, and today virtual schools and virtual universities deliver full curricula online.

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    However, many of the techniques developed and lessons learned with earlier media are used in Internet delivery. The first new and fully online university was founded in as the Open University of Catalonia , headquartered in Barcelona, Spain. In Jones International University was launched as the first fully online university accredited by a regional accrediting association in the US. Between and , enrollment in distance education courses increased rapidly in almost every country in both developed and developing countries. Levels of accreditation vary: widely respected universities such as Stanford University and Harvard now deliver online courses—but other online schools receive little outside oversight, and some are actually fraudulent, i.

    In the United States in , it was found that a third of all the students enrolled in postsecondary education had taken an accredited online course in a postsecondary institution.

    The majority of public and private colleges now offer full academic programs online. Even engineering courses that require the manipulation and control of machines and robots [61] that are technically more challenging to learn remotely are subject to distance learning through the internet. Distance education has a long history, but its popularity and use has grown exponentially as more advanced technology has become available.

    By , online learning programs were available in the United States in 44 states at the K level. Internet forums , online discussion group and online learning community can contribute to an efficacious distance education experience. Research shows that socialization plays an important role in some forms of distance education. E-courses are also a viable option for distance learning. There are many available that cover a broad range of topics. Distance education can be delivered in a paced format similar to traditional campus based models in which learners commence and complete a course at the same time.

    Paced delivery is currently the most common mode of distance education delivery. Alternatively, some institutions offer self-paced programs that allow for continuous enrollment and the length of time to complete the course is set by the learner's time, skill and commitment levels. Paced courses may be offered in either synchronous mode, but self-paced courses are almost always offered asynchronously.