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Sort order. Angela rated it really liked it Nov 04, Mauricio Santoro rated it really liked it Jan 29, Aidas Puklevicius rated it liked it Jan 24, Roy rated it really liked it Aug 19, See Armand Mattelart, Networking the World, —, trans. Liz CareyLibbrecht and James A. See Robert S. Wedlake, S. Kern, The Culture of Time and Space. Karl, Staging the World. Thomas J. See, from an economic point of view, Charles P. Particularly, critics of the asymmetrical economic and political relationships ensuing from the processes of intensified communication and exchange on a global scale warn of the new forces of Empire—that is, the hegemonic role of the United States and multinational trusts—in a new postcolonial and post-cold war world order.
While there is an abundance of historiographical writing on the prehistory of states and nations, we know comparatively little about the historical trajectory taken by what is today termed global civil society. Transnational interaction and communication on a global scale, however, is not as recent a phenomenon as is commonly understood. Founded as a modest lay-missionary organization in in England, the Salvation Army was represented in more than 30 states by It entertained a flourishing network of schools, hospitals, reformatories, factories, publishing houses, and other institutions almost all over the globe.
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It is evident that extra-European points of reference had become commonplace in late Victorian public debates. Thus, not only the epistemological tools of the empire but also its infrastructure and the practical possibilities it offered were very much present in public debates and shaped what can, from that point on, no longer merely be called a metropolitan discourse.
Third, in the beginning, the Salvation Army had to cope with official suspicion, in the United Kingdom as well as in the British colonies and various other countries. During the first two or three decades after its inception it acted not only without any support from the state but often suffered outright repression by the state authorities. Within a few decades, the role of the organization changed fundamentally.
From being denounced as troublemakers raising the concern of the colonial administration, the Salvationists had been transformed into guardians of the empire by the second decade of the twentieth century. Meanwhile, and arguably not entirely unconnected to its imperial usefulness—the organization had also won respectability at home after initially being attacked for decades from various sides including, as previously mentioned, government officials. One result of the eventual recognition by the establishment was that it could extend its services to other colonies and dominions of the British Empire and thus became a truly imperial force, active all over the globe.
As a result, a whole wave of evangelist groups and individuals embarked on what became known as the Home Mission Movement from the late s onward. William Booth and the Rise and Growth of Aggressive Christianity For what was to become a global movement, Salvationism had astonishingly narrow local origins. He served for several years as a minister for a Methodist sect, before he declared his independence in the early s. Nonetheless, Methodism seems to have influenced his religious teachings in at least two important ways.
His rather simplistic belief that eternal damnation was the inescapable fate of the unconverted that went in tandem with a strong conviction that personal salvation was possible in this world only due to the grace of the holy spirit, certainly bore traits of Wesleyan teaching. Several other periodicals including the Salvationist and The War Cry that was to become its most important mouthpiece, followed later.
William Booth appointed himself as its General and introduced the complete range of military ranking for his fellow-Salvationists. Traditional concepts of peacefulness and piety slowly gave way to ideals of aggressive self-assertion of which the conspicuous popularity of military rhetoric and imagery in Christian circles is but one index. It seems to me that we want more of this determined aggressive spirit. Verily, we must make them look—tear the bandages off, open their eyes, make them bear it, and if they run away from you in one place, meet them in another, and let them have no peace until they submit to God and get their souls saved.
This is what Christianity ought to be doing in this land. This is militarism—a settled, absolute, regular system of using men to accomplish a common settled purpose. Third, it was supposed to clearly demarcate the Salvationists from other Christian missionaries, making them distinguishable as a lay civil society organization that had nothing in common with the established churches.
The latter point is significant insofar as it did indeed appeal to the members of the working classes, many of whom were, as we have already noticed, strongly prejudiced against the congregational versions of Christianity. Whichever aspect may have been decisive, the restructuring along military lines doubtlessly was a tremendous success.
The clergy of the Church of England and other established denominations were often hostile, and the local authorities not seldom regarded the zealous revivalists as troublemakers and had them arrested. It was only after the organization became significantly engaged in social service and philanthropic activities from the s onward that things began to change slowly. By the turn of the century, the Army was increasingly recognized in official circles as an efficient agent of both social reform and social control. Long before such a recognition by the establishment was even imaginable, the international expansion of the movement had begun.
An analysis of this discursive dimension also demonstrates the importance of global mostly colonial or exotic metaphors and points of reference. On the basis of the conspicuous omnipresence of imperial rhetoric in the core texts produced by leading figures of the Salvation movement, I would suggest reading the Army as a colonizing agency within the boundaries of the United Kingdom. Apart from being a tremendous commercial success more than , copies were sold within one and a half years after its release ,61 the book provoked a vibrant public debate about poverty, philanthropy, and the responsibilities of civil society, involving such prominent intellectuals as T.
Huxley and George Bernard Shaw. The catchy title itself is a perfect illustration for this point. The foul and fetid breath of our slums is almost as poisonous as that of the African Swamp. Just as in Darkest Africa. Drunkenness and all manner of uncleanness, moral and physical abound. A population sodden with drink, steeped in vice eaten up by every social and physical malady, these are the denizens of Darkest England among whom my life has been spent and to whose rescue I would now summon all that is best in the manhood and womanhood of our land.
Next came the vicious, and the innermost was the domain of the criminals. All of them were threatened by the constant temptation of the brothels and gin shops in their vicinity. The change from Devon to Australia is not such a change in many respects as merely to cross over from Devon to Normandy.
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Borrowing again heavily from the imperial rhetoric of his times, the general made it a point that emigration did not mean a clean break with the motherland. Quite the reverse: the family ties would become even stronger through the diaspora situation: It will resemble nothing so much as the unmooring of a little piece of England, and towing it across the sea to find a safe anchorage in a sunnier clime.
The ship which takes out emigrants will bring back the produce of the farms, and constant travelling to and fro will lead more than ever to the feeling that we and our ocean-sundered brethren are members of one family. Being onboard the ship for several weeks without an occupation could easily lead to 41 Figure 2.
It should not come as a surprise, therefore, that the plan was received very warmly by the usual advocates of British imperialism, such as Rudyard Kipling, Henry Rider Haggard,99 Cecil Rhodes, and Winston Churchill as a useful strategy to foster imperial unity.
In the concluding part of this chapter we see how the Army ultimately became an active agent of British imperialism.
The international expansion began in with the founding of a branch in the United States. Australia and several European countries including France and Switzerland followed almost immediately. In spite of the numerical insignificance of the expedition corps, both colonial officials and the Anglo-Indian public seem to have been extremely alarmed when it arrived in Bombay.
Ironically, one British magistrate suggested dealing with them under the European Vagrancy Act, a law that allowed for the deportation of unemployed and distressed Europeans back to the country of their origin. The reasons for this official distrust are obvious. It is beyond doubt, however, that most colonial officials tended to read it that way.
In Punjab, for instance, W. Salvationist popularity also benefited considerably from two visits by William Booth in the early s. Educational institutions were established and many of the Salvationist Corps regularly engaged in philanthropic activities during famines and natural catastrophes. This is probably the reason why the Army gave up its policy of strict autonomy and the first attempts to curry the favor of the colonial authorities began. He states: I have the honour to report that the Salvation Army Hospital at Anand is a superfluous institution, founded for the purpose of competing for patients and possible converts with other Missions previously planted at the place.
Had they been guided by unmixed motives, whether philanthropic or even Christian, they could not have selected Anand for their centre.
Literatur:Conrad Sachsenmaier Competing visions of world order 2007
By they had managed to establish more than day-schools all over the subcontinent, daily attended by about 10, pupils without receiving any grants-in-aid. This would greatly simplify the teaching of the various languages, and would tend toward the unification of the country. A similar result would. Having spent so many years in the United States, I should like to have an opportunity of explaining something of the general policy of that country with regard to that question. It was going to last until the end of the British rule in India.